Requirements for Reliable and Flexible Smart Grids as Energy Networks in Smart Cities
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Whenever the characteristics of a Smart City were described, the energy sector with its power grids – the socalled Smart Grids – are considered as a crucial part and backbone of a connected urban area. In this light, an
increasing number of plants in the field of renewable energies and the demands of “Sector-Coupling” and power-to-x will make intelligent networking and the exchange of energy data indispensable in the future. The almost entire amount of renewable energy facilities is feeding the distribution grid and define the challenges for its expansion. This paper will provide a synthesis regarding the aspects, which were considered as important for having effects for urban and regional planning. The decentral energy production and consumption with the transformation from consumers to prosumers is foremost the most crucial aspect, especially in the light of the variety with renewable energy production. This means that production and consumption are preferably at the same location and the requirements for “Sector-Coupling”-facilities have to been considered. On a local scale, this means that building and urban planning requirements should foresee regulations regarding installation of energy storages on the respective scale for instance. Furthermore, the energy distribution network on local, regional and even national level and the strategic land use plans must be adapted in the way, that regulations regarding the energy network on a regional scale could also be realized in an appropriate time frame. Another important point is the necessity for handling the flexibilities in the power grid network. The power grid network and its supplying facilities has to be digitized to fit this demand and sensors as well as real-time-monitoring of the energy consumption and distribution could give useful new insights. Furthermore, the network itself has to be open and flexible in order to allow the integration of innovative solutions in the energy sector on a short- and long-term basis (Electric mobility, Smart Fabrics, Intelligent Storage Systems etc.), which could bring enormous challenges
for the power grids (more flexible, more decentralized, more dynamic). All of these aspects have to be considered in the light of security and data privacy of supply in the critical infrastructures, especially for
strategical planning purposes. In order to make energy system transformation smart, cost-efficient and economically viable, several technologies and approaches regarding hard- and software must be combined: expansion and adaption of the energy network, integration of storage facilities, the use of flexibilities for prosumers and openness to new market models. All of these mentioned aspects will influence regional and urban planning on different levels regarding spatio-temporal aspects and have to evaluated carefully for the demands of a smart energy network.